Sunday, May 24, 2020

Two Views of Capital Punishment Essay - 1283 Words

Capital punishment has been a debatable subject for decades. Human thinking often ignores the equal-value relationship when it comes to the taking of life. Attention shifts from the victim’s life to that of the murderer. Immanuel Kant believes that moral laws apply equally, and if someone breaks the law, we should make sure that the law applies to everyone. Otherwise, there wouldn’t be such thing as morality. And without morality, life is meaningless. We should be morally strong and be able to kill the criminals, in order to prove that the laws are more important than human life. On the other hand, John Stuart Mill states that breaking the law is part of utility. Although he thinks that the most appropriate punishment for a murderer is†¦show more content†¦After researching and learning the beliefs and theories of each philosopher, I can conclude that I agree with Kant on the death penalty issue. I strongly agree with the belief that â€Å"we shall treat others the same way we want to be treated†. Even though Mill does support capital punishment, he doesn’t stress the proper way of punishment as much as Kant does, which is the criminal’s life. The value we put on something is usually indicated by the price we are willing to pay. Should the value of an innocent murder victim’s life be reduced to that of mere stolen or damaged property, to be compensated by just a prison term? Apparently many think so. Does unequal application of the law in favor of certain groups make capital punishment invalid? According to this reasoning, because different judges for the same crimes often hand out unequal sentences, all criminals should be set free! In relation to our rules of evidence Mill thinks these are too favorable to the prisoner; and juries and Judges carry out the maxim,â€Å" It is better that ten guilty should escape that one innocent person should suffer (Mill 70) His proposition of making a person spend the rest of his life analyzing and regretting his crime , suffering in a sell sounds promising, but it’s not enough. The death penalty doesn’t discourage persons from committing murders. Some may respond that the deterrent value of capital punishment is unproved. But if weShow MoreRelatedDivergent Views Of Capital Punishment958 Words   |  4 PagesDivergent Views: Capital punishment as a Human Rights Issue According to the basic principles of global human rights; capital punishment or death penalty is a crime towards humanity and the most crucial and important human right, which is the right to life. As a result, any form of justification attached to it is not valid arguing on the basis of the human rights organization policies. In order to successfully argue out the topic of discussion, this section uses two antagonistic perceptions of theRead More Dead Man Walking Essay1110 Words   |  5 Pagesmost controversial issues: capital punishment. The books narrator, Sister Helen Prejean, discusses her personal views on capital punishment. She was a spiritual advisor and friend to two death row inmates; Elmo Patrick Sonnier and Robert Lee Willie. From her experiences, she developed views on the death penalty. She believed it was morally wrong and spoke openly about it. Sister Helen successfully defends her views on capital punishment while stating that capital punishment should be illegal . Her experiencesRead MoreA Liberal Perspective On Capital Punishment1247 Words   |  5 PagesPerspective on Capital Punishment The liberal ideology is based in the values of individualism, in that the individual themselves is important in their pursuit and struggle for freedom. There are some factors that are common in liberalism, some of which include: liberty, formation of equality and dominance of individuals in bearing within their society. This essay will discuss these ideas of liberalism in relation to how they support the controversial issue of capital punishment. Capital punishment is theRead MoreCapital Punishment and its Controversies 1434 Words   |  6 PagesCapital punishment uses death penalty as a form of punishment in many states and countries. It is a practice that has raised endless questions all over the world. Capital punishment or death penalty policy has changed in many countries overtime. Countries such as, New Australia, Zealand and 15 states in the US do not have capital punishment. One of the major concerns arising with capital punishment is because it causes ending of a human li fe. People and organizations of different backgrounds areRead MoreCapital Punishment : Deontology Vs. Consequentialism1165 Words   |  5 Pages Capital Punishment: Deontology vs. consequentialism Subject: Analyze the deontological and consequentialist arguments on both sides of the issue of capital punishment in Gregg v Georgia. In this paper I will present the moral arguments of deontology and consequentialism used to determine whether or not using the death penalty was in fact constitutional. I will present both sides of the arguments and present them in the context of this trial and of similar situations where the arguments couldRead MoreCapital Punishment1406 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Punishment Many positions can be defended when debating the issue of capital punishment. In Jonathan Glovers essay Executions, he maintains that there are three views that a person may have in regard to capital punishment: the retributivist, the absolutist, and the utilitarian. Although Glover recognizes that both statistical and intuitive evidence cannot validate the benefits of capital punishment, he can be considered a utilitarian because he believes that social usefulness isRead MoreThe Controversy Over the Death Penalty Essay907 Words   |  4 PagesThe Controversy Over the Death Penalty Why is the death penalty used as a means of punishment for crime? Is this just a way to solve the nations growing problem of overcrowded prisons, or is justice really being served? Why do some view the taking of a life morally correct? These questions are discussed and debated upon in every state and national legislature throughout the country. Advantages and disadvantages for the death penalty exist, and many members of the United States, and individualRead More Capital Punishment Essay1405 Words   |  6 Pages Capital Punishment nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Many positions can be defended when debating the issue of capital punishment. In Jonathan Glovers essay quot;Executions,quot; he maintains that there are three views that a person may have in regard to capital punishment: the retributivist, the absolutist, and the utilitarian. Although Glover recognizes that both statistical and intuitive evidence cannot validate the benefits of capital punishment, he can be considered a utilitarian becauseRead MoreMoral Issues in film Dead Man Walking Essay925 Words   |  4 Pagesissue, which is being dealt with, is capital punishment. The film was based on a true story, therefore we get a true view of capital punishment. The names used in the film are the real names of the people it was based on. The film is about a man who was involved in the killing of two innocent people and was in prison for six years before the prison decided to let capital punishment take place. Capital punishment is a punishment which takes away the life of a criminalRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is A Complex Issue924 Words   |  4 PagesCapital punishment is a complex issue with many different opinions and viewpoints. Deciding whether a person should be punished by death is not a trivial ordeal nor should it be treated as such. How do you know when a crime is punishable by death or not? â€Å"A popular bumper sticker says, ‘We kill people to show people that killing people is wrong’† (Carmical). This slogan misses the idea that the death penalty does not chastise people for killing, but for murder. Murder is the purposeful action of

Monday, May 18, 2020

Descriptive Essay About Christmas - 736 Words

r 2017 â€Å"My favorite holiday† Christmas is my favorite holiday of the year. I love seeing the shinny Christmas lights that decorates my street and the sound of fresh fallen snow on the ground. Christmas reminds me of family, the laughter and loved we shared, and the gifts we gave to each other. My house on Christmas became the center of my joy. I remember waking up on Christmas day with a huge smile on my face, heart full of joy, and my stomach barking. I can smell all the spices cooking down stairs. As soon as I got out of bed I will rushed down the steps into the kitchen to see what my mom had prepare for us on this special day. We had different variety of food turkey, stuffing, ham, bake beans, mac and†¦show more content†¦Me and my older cousins drag the box outside onto the front porch. As I begin to open the box my hands started trembling. I couldn’t tell if my hands were shaking from the excitement or because it was five degrees outside. It took us tw o hours to put the hoop together. Our lips felt like icicles we were numb from head to toe, but it was worth every moment. It was the most beautiful basketball hoop I ever seen. It was candy apple red and the backboard had lights on it just in case I wanted to play in the dark. I thought Santa Claus gave me the coolest gift in the world. Later on in the evening I use to enjoy sitting in our cozy living room while, the fireplace was burning sipping on hot cocca and scoff down ginger bread cookies we made the night before. My family was always exchanging jokes. My brother Tito and my sister Titania love joking around, but my brother was a lot funnier than my sister. He was the jokester in the family. I remember this one particular joke my brother said about my aunt. He said she had a temptation hair style. I was hollering it was so funny because when you looked at her hair it did remind you of the singer group the Temptation. You would of thought she was a member of the group. I wa s laughing so hard tears were running down my face and I urinated a little on myself . My brother always made holidays so much fun. Christmas was very special to me because the feast my motherShow MoreRelatedDescriptive Essay About Christmas730 Words   |  3 PagesChristmas is a time of joy, love, and laughter, and it’s such a splendid and special time! The sights, smells, and tastes are so delightful, and they all fill my heart with glee and delight! I love the sweet smell of sugar cookies baking, twinkling Christmas lights, and shiny wrapping paper! In the 13 years that I have been alive, it’s always been just me and my mom, and sometimes a pet. My mom is really special. She has a caring and loving heart, even though she’s grouchy a lot. She likes ChristmasRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Christmas842 Words   |  4 PagesTopsy Turvy Christmas Morning Feelings of joy when giving gifts to loved ones; sweet, rich scents of delicious warm Swiss Miss hot chocolate; harmonious tunes of beautiful snowflakes, and bright red carriages pulled by reindeer. And of course, the glimmering white snow that brings an ecstatic feeling of happiness every year on first snowfall, as if the world has never seen it before. There truly is nothing not to love about Christmas. That is, of course, until that beautiful white snow I have alwaysRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Christmas1716 Words   |  7 PagesI sent my brother to the hospital and ruined his Christmas break one year when I lived in Canada during the holiday season which started in December not in November like here in the US because our Thanksgiving falls on the first Monday in October. So, we usually start to decorate for the holidays the first week of December. In my house, every year we would pull all the decorations up from the basement to me it was a big deal for the boxes were huge t hat this funny musty smell to them because basementRead MoreDescriptive Essay About A Christmas Tree735 Words   |  3 Pagesone? Nope.† â€Å"What about this one?† Here I go getting chosen to be taken home to a family, a house, and a new life! â€Å"I really like that one,†said a small girl. â€Å"Me too,† added an older sister. I have been waiting to be the perfect size, perfect height, and perfect color. I have heard so many great things about the holiday! The food, the presents, the love towards others, but most importantly the birth of our savior, Jesus. I hope this family chooses me to be there new Christmas tree! â€Å"How much willRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Christmas Gift1796 Words   |  8 PagesIt was Christmas morning of 2006, and I woke up in glee excited to see the Christmas gifts under our Christmas tree. I was especially excited to open one very special gift because the week before I had spotted an iPod box in my parent’s room. In my mind, I was so sure that the shiny new iPod was for me. See a couple months before I had printed out pictures of iPods and casually displayed them around the house. I was hinting to my mom how badly I wanted an iPod. Therefore, when Christmas morning cameRead MoreNarrative vs. Descriptive Writing977 Words   |  4 Pages A narrative essay uses a point of view to tell a story. It is an engaging way for an author to tell his reader about an experience they have had or a personal story. Descriptive writing is a description of something. It could be a person, place, thing, emotion or experience. The author is allowed more artistic free dom when writing in descriptive form. While both descriptive and narrative essays are similar in many ways, the descriptive essays use of language fully immerses the reader intoRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Opening Scenes Of Tim Burtons Corpse Bride And The Nightmare Before Christmas1010 Words   |  5 PagesCompare and Contrast Essay of the Opening Scenes of Tim Burton’s Corpse Bride and The Nightmare Before Christmas This essay compares and contrasts the similarities and the different parts of the opening scenes of two movies of Tim Burton which are Corpse Bride and The Nightmare Before Christmas. The scenes will be explained in details through the gothic elements and his unique style. Here is an outline of the essay’s main sections; 1. Introduction †¢ Information about Tim Burton and his unique styleRead MoreCompare and Contrast Essay866 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ Compare and Contrast: â€Å"Fish Cheeks† and â€Å"Caged Bird† Rachael Becker Assignment 5 Nicole  Yurchak 1/30/2014 The differences between a narrative and a descriptive essay determine the way in which the reader receives the story. The purpose of each is still very clear, to connect to the reader using story telling. In order for the reader to receive the story as intended, the author must create a clear picture of;Read MoreList Of Books War Of The Worlds 1490 Words   |  6 PagesList of books War of the Worlds The Haunting of Hill House Bird Box Pen Pal The Other Side of the Sky A Christmas Carol Touching Spirit Bear The Gunslinger The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy Haunting of Hill House Eleanor and Theodora (Theo) are invited by Dr. Montageau to Hill House, and Luke is there to supervise them. Shortly after they get there Eleanor starts hearing noises in the hallways, and paranormal phenomena start to occur. Days later, Eleanor starts to hear noises in the hallwaysRead MoreEssay on The Personality of Scrooge1338 Words   |  6 Pages A Christmas Carol written by Charles Dickens. A Christmas Carol is about how a â€Å"cold-hearted, tight fisted, selfish† money grabbing man is offered an opportunity of a life time, to change his behaviour, attitude... to have a second chance in life. The theme of this novella is to look at the good you do in life and how it carries over after your death. The moral of the book is; People can make changes in their lives whenever they really want to, even right up to the end. In this essay I am

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects Of Binge Drinking On The United States Essay

Binge drinking is the pattern of drinking defined as the most common excessive alcohol consumption trend in the United States (CDC, 2016). In 2013, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) reported that 17% of the U.S. population reported binge drinking (CDC, 2015). This constitutes one in six adults reporting binge drinking four times a month (CDC, 2016). Compared to overall U.S. statistics, studies have shown that residents of the U.S. Mexico border have â€Å"higher annual levels of drinking and alcohol-related problems on the U.S. side of the border† typically amongst the younger population (Caetano and Mills, 2016). This is a problem because binge drinking is related to three quarters of potential life lost in the U.S. (CDC, 2015). Economically, the act of binge drinking â€Å"was responsible for about 77% of the cost of all excessive alcohol use in all states and DC; in total, excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $249 billion in 2010. (CDC, 2015). Apart from being the most common form of excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking is defined as a blood alcohol level of .08 g/dL usually achieved by consuming 5 or more drinks for men and 4 or more drinks for women within two hours (CDC, 2016). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, binge drinking is associated with many health problems. Some of the top health problems include unintentional injuries such as car crashes, falls, burns, and drowning (CDC, 2015). Others includeShow MoreRelatedResearch Paper Drinking Age1565 Words   |  7 PagesThe legal drinking age refers to the youngest age at which a person is legally allowed to buy and consumes alcoholic beverages. The drinking age varies from country to country. Here in the United States the legal drinking age is twenty-one. There has been much debate on whether the drinking age in the United States should be lowered from twenty-one to eighteen. People in favor of keeping the drinking age at twent y-one believe that there will be less alcohol related injuries and deaths fromRead More18 vs. 21: Drinking Age1389 Words   |  6 Pageswant to change the drinking age from 21 to 18, when there are other activities that have limit of age such as marriage at 18, driving at 16 and 35 to be a president? Alcohol plays a major role in today society, which becomes a controversial issue among teens. Alcohol is a mind-altering chemical that is potentially more dangerous than any other drug and can be very destructive. For past few years, many people are trying to lower the drinking age without knowing the negative effects of alcohol and howRead MoreBinge Drinking vs the Drinking Age Essays829 Words   |  4 Pages2013 Binge Drinking VS the Drinking Age Presidents of college campuses around the nation face issues of underage drinking and binge drinking on a regular basis and realizes that it is a danger and a problem. â€Å"Alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., a major contributing factor to unintentional injuries, the leading cause of death for youths and young adults, and accounts for an estimated 75,000 or more deaths in the United States annually† (Wechsler 2010). Binge drinkingRead MoreBinge Drinking : A Phenomenon That Is Present Among College Students867 Words   |  4 PagesUsing the literature and the studies previously analyzed, we can accept that binge drinking is a phenomenon that is present amongst college students everywhere. The increasing number of college students being affected by binge drinking is relatively high, particularly amongst first-year college students in the United States. The effects that binge drinking can bring as investigated in the studies previously mention ed, should raise enough concerns that will allow college campuses to take immediateRead MoreUnderage Drinking Is Part Of The Culture Of College1734 Words   |  7 Pagescollege one thing that I did discover is that underage drinking is part of the culture in college, also the friends that I had in high school who are 21 now I have discovered they drink some of the least amount now. Which has begun to make me wonder why people who are 21 drink less than people who are underage. I believe that when people are 21 they now do not have to worry about the next time they can get alcohol. Congress should lower the drinking age from 21 to 18 because at age 18 when they areRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Abolished1634 Words   |  7 Pagesconsumption in the United States all stem from one major root: the Prohibition Era of the 1920s. The Prohibition Era lasted almost thirteen years and banned the production, the distribution, and the sale of alcohol. In 1933, the Prohibition Ac t was repealed and states designated their own legal drinking age. In 1984 the National Minimum Drinking Age act was passed and raised the drinking age in the United States to twenty-one. This law caused uproar in states that had declared the minimum drinking age to beRead MoreCause Effect of Binge Drinking Essay1247 Words   |  5 Pagesunplanned sexual activity all have in common? They are all frequent results of binge drinking by college students. On a typical Friday or Saturday night you can find the average college student out drinking and having fun. Normally partying with friends at a party, bar, or club; most of these college students are underage consuming excessive amounts of alcohol, or as its better known, â€Å"binge drinking.†The term binge drinking is defined as the consumption of five or more drinks in a row by men and fourRead MoreThroughout History, The United States Has Taken On Several1288 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout history, the United States has t aken on several policies regarding the minimum legal drinking age that vary in age as well as in state and federal enforcement of the limit. To this day, there is quite a bit of controversy surrounding the subject because advocates of higher, lower, and limitless age regulations all provide decent arguments towards their suggested policies. Regardless of the policy, they all have the same aim: reduce alcohol addiction, binge drinking, drunk driving, and otherRead MoreThe Effects Of Binge Drinking On College Students1139 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effects of Binge Drinking in College Students Binge drinking is when a person has more than four drinks, if female and five if male, in one sitting. While researching texts written about the negative effects of binge drinking in college students, I found articles and scholarly journals written by specialists in this specific field of study. These authors mainly focus on the fact that excessive binge drinking is detrimental to the quality of life and can alter your state of health in a negativeRead MoreThe Effects Of Binge Drinking On College Students849 Words   |  4 Pagesnegative. With increased peer pressure and opportunity, some are introduced to a parent’s worst nightmare that being the cause and effects of binge drinking. I plan to delve into the ideas and perspectives of both college students, and researchers to excavate what it is that engulfs college students to consume large amounts of alcohol at a given time, and how the effects translate cordially. With high contrast of various academic articles/scholarly s ources, we can see exclusive patterns and importance

The Jack Roller Free Essays

Peter Wilke Professor Callais Analysis Paper February 11, 2013 The Jack Roller In the book The Jack Roller author Clifford Shaw is a criminologist who has researched many different youthful deviants to see exactly when the deviance begins and how it evolves. The book dives deep into the mind of a particular case of a boy named Stanley in Chicago during the 1920’s. From the beginning of the book Stanley is abused by his stepmother often being set aside so she could tend to here actual children. We will write a custom essay sample on The Jack Roller or any similar topic only for you Order Now I believe this book is most accurately depicts the social learning theory. Stanley has been exposed to a multitude of positive outlooks of crime from his family and friends at an extremely young age. I support the blank slate theory because in the very beginning of the book Stanley’s stepmother encourages him to act in deviant behavior. â€Å"One day my stepmother told William to take me to the railroad yard to break into box-cars. † (52-53). So Stanley has been taken under the wing of his step-brother who is stealing stuff for there stepmother, in return they are rewarded for stealing. This is a perfect example of an exposing Stanley to a positive outlook on crime. With this happening it kick started Stanley’s deviant behavior he began stealing for fun for many years, constantly being picked up by the police and taken to detentions homes which were not much of a punishment for him. Stanley enjoyed being in the detention home more than his real home so the consequence for his criminal behavior almost was a reward for him. In the detention home, Stanley was able to meet other criminal that furthermore gave him positive reinforcement of crime, â€Å"I was really awed by the bravery and wisdom of the older crooks. Their stories of adventure fascinated my childish imagination, and I felt drawn to them. (57). These criminal that Stanley met inspired him; they gave him someone to look up to, someone that he could aspire to be through crime. After being released Stanley was picked up by his step mother only to run away yet again to survive a couple days then be picked up by the police on the street. This process happened a multitude of times un til eventually he was sent to the St. Charles School for Boys. â€Å"The strict discipline, hard punishment, no recreation, fear, and unfair breaks made life miserable. † (68). St. Charles was the first negative consequence for his crimes. Stanley was absolutely miserable there and yearned to get out just to go back to stealing. In observing this book you realize that all Stanley knows is crime, he frequently is in and out of a job, and keeps one for rarely over a month. Stanley knows nothing but crime it has been engraved into his â€Å"clean slate†, and he has learned how to survive off of it. After serving 16 months Stanley was released for St. Charles only to be arrested not soon after and return back to St. Charles for another month. After being released Stanley makes somewhat of an attempt at earning his money honestly and goes though a multitude of jobs. He starts out living with this stepsister, only to be kicked out because of missing rent. He then meets a very friendly woman who takes him into her homes and lets him live. Stanley enjoys the company of this woman and uses her as somewhat of an emotional release, â€Å"This time I was not afraid, but felt a wave of depression and sadness come over me, because a woman was offering me sympathy; something I had never received before. † (76). Stanley lived with this woman for about a month soon to find out she was a prostitute, although he was shocked he did not condemn her for it and Stanley understood. He still left her to go to the YMCA only to return to the detention home. The interaction with Stanley and the prostitute enforces the social learning theory because it is exposing Stanley to his first mother figure that is a criminal. The only positive female influence in his entire life makes her living based off of crime; one could see how this could impact such an impressionable youthful mind. Eventually the vice president of a company he worked for took in Stanley, the man had no children and was very wealthy. Stanley enjoyed living with him and his wife but yearned for the freedom of his city, and at the first opportunity gather up his money and ran away. After this Stanley began to become involved in much more elaborate burglaries and â€Å" Jack Rolling†, he became with a â€Å"gang† of other boys and was making a large amount of money robbing and stealing. â€Å"So we plied our trade with a howling success for two months. Sometimes we made as much as two hundred dollars in a single day. † (97), this expressed an enormous positive reinforcement of crime to Stanley. Stanley has never made this type of money in his life before, it is much more fun and easier in his opinion than working a job and you can make much more than a job. In this book I believe Stanley was raised on a life of crime, nearly everything he was exposed to provided a positive outlook on this crime. He simply never was exposed to any real punishment before it was to late. All of the friendly people he met were criminals, such as the prostitute and his gang, he made a large amount of money â€Å"jack rolling†, and he enjoyed the ego from his criminal record with all the respect it earned him from the youth. The social learning theory supports Stanley’s case because his family, peers, school, and his environment all directed him into a life of crime. The other possible theory I could see one choosing would be the control theory, assuming that people are naturally inclined to commit crime could seem like it could fit Stanley’s case. The reason I did not choose it is because the environment that Stanley was in I feel created him. His stepmother, his siblings and stepsiblings, the detention home, his gang, and people such as the prostitute all impacted his deviant life an extreme amount. How to cite The Jack Roller, Essay examples

The Aral Sea free essay sample

Disaster of Aral Sea The Aral Sea was once the fourth largest inland sea in the world. About, a million years ago from now the northwestern part of Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan were covered by a massive inland sea. This sea was formed when all the waters retreated from a big land; they left a broad plain that contained highly saline soil. Due to the retreating of water many ancient remains were disappeared. The only remnant that remained was a big inland sea which was the Aral Sea. The Aral Sea was an inland salt water sea, one odd thing about this sea is, there was no channels connected to the sea.There were two different rivers that feed into the Aral Sea which are the Amu Darya River that flows down from Pamir Mountain and the other one is Syr Parya that flows from Tian Shan Mountains. The fresh water from these two rivers keeps the water of Aral Sea and the slat levels in perfect balance. The first one who pulled the trigger that started the disaster of Aral Sea was the soviet central government. In 1960 decided to make the Soviet Union to be self-sufficient in cotton and to increase the production of rice.To carry on with their plan the government of Soviet Union ordered to people to take out additional amount of water needed from the 2 rivers that was currently feeding into the Sea. Maybe that time they couldn’t think of other source to take out water t use, but because of their decision they created a problem in Aral Sea that could never be fixed. Also from that time the people who lived near the Aral Sea that could never be fixed. Also from that time the people who lived near the Aral Sea had to suffer because the fishes and other organic lives started to face a disaster that might not have any solution Dams that were built by the Soviet Union across the 2 rivers for irrigation also had some affect on salinity, notably by reduction of its variability with the season’s smaller lakes within the Aral sea that have stopped being fed by river flow tend to have higher salinity due to evaporation, causing a lot of fish to die. Before the soviet central union government made the decision to put out water from the 2 rivers the actual Aral Sea was a rich source of fish. About 20 species were identified by the biologists from the sea, including sturgeon an d catfish.The town of Muynak, located on the edge of the sea, was a fishing town that attracted a lot of travelers all around the word to its seaside visits. But, as a result of the soviet central government decision, today Muynak is a desert town more than a hundred kilometers from the sea. The only remains in the town are lot of ships that is in a process of rusting and some ancient fish plant. At first they consumed it was a temporary condition and dredged a canal to the retreating shore so boats could continue to sail the sea and still dock at the wharves.But the effluents that did reach the sea were laced with a deadly mix of salt and pesticides from the cotton fields. Fish populations fluctuated and eventually when the canal was 30 km long and the sea continued to move away, the boats were then abandoned to sail on the sea anymore. The drinking water supplies have sea interrupted, and the water is contaminated with pesticides and other agricultural chemicals as well as bacteria and viruses. The farms in the area near use some highly toxic pesticides and other harmful chemicals. For decades, these chemicals have been deposited into the Aral Sea was lost water, the climate has become extreme. Also when the wind blows across the dried up Sea, it carries dust containing toxic chemicals. So, a centuries old way of life has disappeared in decades. The vast area of exposed seabed is laced with pesticides. It’s estimated that 75 million tons of toxic dust and salts are spread across central Asia each year. If the Aral Sea dries up completely, 15 billion tons of salt will be left behind. Evaporation is another cause of pollution in Aral Sea. More and more water is lost which means more and more of oxygen is disappearing also, so the fishes can’t survive so they die and decompose which emits pollutants e. . ) Algae. As more water has been taken from the rivers, the sea’s water level has decreased by over 60%. As a result of all those problems over the five years the sea’s depth has decreased from 30 metres to 12 metres. One of the main causes of the disaster in Aral Sea is significant loss of water. Although, the water level has fluctuated up to a few metres in the past due to natural variability, in the water flow from the rivers, by 1970. The water loss exceeded the limit of natural water level variation that has occurred in the past. The river inflow has been rapidly decreasing since 1960. Net evaporation has also decreased; as a result, there was a net deficit of water to the sea. In the first period of disappearance, water level has dropped by about 21 cm/year. But, in the next decade or so, the speed of water level has increased to 57 cm/year and as the time goes the rate got faster and faster. As the lake loses water, it becomes shallower. The incoming solar radiation for a given square area now has to heat up a smaller volume of water, thus the water temperature at the surface increases faster.This in turn lowers the specific humidity at the surface, which further increases the rate of evaporation. Another factor that accelerated the evaporation is that the Salinization of the lake leads to vertical stratification. (Full of water) (Almost no water) As the sea level dropped because of water, inflow of salts to the sea exceeded the salt discharge. In the salt ten years, the salinity increased by 14%, which exceeded the threshold for many commercial fish. As a result commercial fishing catches fell from 43,000 tons in 1960 to zero in 1980.From 1960 to 2004 in 44 years the surface salinity increased from 10ppt to 92ppt. The steep rise in salinity was loss, the element which alters landscapes the most. When agriculture uses furrow irrigation, soil receives an excessive amount of water from rivers and canals. Water then gets filtered by depositing the salt in the soil. Excess water accumulated in groundwater that remains after filtration raises the water table. Risen groundwater dilutes and moves upward the salt resting in the soil. Water moves upward and salt concentration increases in the surface layers of the soil.The water evaporates during day time, leaving the salt behind as it becomes like a layer of snow on the surface of the ground. The other cause of shrinking of Aral Sea is change in the sea surface temperature. The heat capacity is reduced; therefore it can warm up and cool off faster than before. The change in the sea surface between day and night creates more and more of sea breezes. In a sense, Aral Sea has started to exhibit a monsoon climate, which is characterized by seasonal climate change due to warming and cooling of the sea. The shrinking period was also characterized by less ice covering of the sea.The Aral Sea region experienced significant desertification during the desiccation period. Several factors influenced the desertification, including the decline in the groundwater level. Bu cutting off water supply to a region, the hydrological balance of the area becomes offset as more water leaves the region. Frequent low-water periods contributed to the shortfall of needed resources for vegetation. The decline in the groundwater level in the Amudarya and Syndarya deltas lead to increase in salinity. Due to increase in salinity plants began to die away.The vegetation decreased to 40% and the side effect of the decrease in the protective vegetation stronger winds, which led to dust storms in the area. Six million hectares of agricultural land were destroyed as a result of Salinization and desertification. In 1960 the Aral Sea’s biodiversity was considered low. The water in the sea supported no more than 24 species of fish, over 200 species of free living macro invertebrates, and 180 land animal species. Due to the lowering of water level and the rise of salinity and toxicity none of the fish species survived. Less than 30 macro invertebrates survived and of the land animal that were reliant of the Aral Sea a few dozen remain. With the retreating shores once water locked breeding grounds of many fish species became vulnerable to land predators. Also, with the decreasing volume of animal life in the region more salient species were introduced in an attempt to preserve the 44,000 tones of fish pre anuum. The disaster of Aral Sea has degraded the environment in many different ways. After all the miserable things happened they finally came out with possible solutions to recover the Aral Sea.The possible solutions that they came out with were 1. Improving the quality of irrigation canals 2. Installing desalination plants 3. Charging farmers to use the water from the rivers 4. Using alternative cotton species that require less water 5. Using fewer chemicals on the cotton 6. Moving farming away from cotton 7. Installing dams to fill the Aral Sea 8. Redirecting water from the Volga, Ob and Irtysh rivers. This would restore the Aral Sea to its former size in 20–30 years at a cost of US$30–50 billion 9.Pumping sea water into the Aral Sea from the Caspian Sea via a pipeline, and diluting with freshwater from local catchment areas Not all parts of Aral Sea was possible to recover since the south Aral sea has almost completely dried there isn’t anything to do for them because even they try to recover the south Aral Sea they won’t see any progress. At least they had the North Aral sea to attempt to recover one of the thing that they did is the Kazakh government planned to build Dike Kokaral, a concrete dam separating the two different parts of the Aral Sea.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Industry Production Essay Example For Students

Industry Production Essay Industry ProductionThe structure of industrial production and the service industries ischaracterized by the prevalence of smarkforce, 30% beingll and medium-sizedcompanies (94% and 5.6% according to 100 workers) thoug981 data), employing,however, only 70% of the workforce, 30% being monopolized by large c ompanies(more than 100 workers) though these comprise only 0.4% of the total. This meansthat companies are widely dispersed over the whole country, obviously withsignificant location and concentration of industry, and more than half theindustrial comp anies operate at little more than workshop level, as is seen bythe small workforce in each production unit. On the other hand, the small number of large companies is explained by increasedconcentration, at that level also indicated by the high number of employees. There is only a limited number of cooperative companies (food sector and thetransformation of agricultural products), while large companies tend to becomemultinational. The presence of companies with foreign capital monopolizingspecific commodity secto rs (pharmaceuticals, photographic materials,electronics, cosmetics etc.) is far from rare. One particular kind of development regards medium-sized companies, frequentlyderivations of small family-run businesses with a specialized production, whichas a result of management flexibility have succeeded in reconverting productionand using technol ogical innovations which, with increased competitivity, enablethem to penetrate international markets, in this way contributing to theconsolidation of the Italian image and presence throughout the world. The Industrial SectorsThe steel and metalworking industriesThe countrys economic revival in the immediate postwar period was essentiallysustained by development and expansion of the basic industries, particularly thesteel industry, itself conditioned by the importation of raw materials such asores, scrap iron and coal. Membership of ECSC enabled the Italian steel industry, which had installed theintegral processing cycle, to attain extremely high levels of production thussatisfying increasingly greater domestic demand, such as that of the engineeringindustry, as well as the export market. Following plant reconversion steel andmetal production is now stagnating due to the international economic situationdominated by strong competition from Japanese industries and plastics, leadingto overproduction in the principal European countries. The engineering industriesMechanical engineering production is extremely varied and includes companiessuch as shipbuilding, aerospace, carbuilding etc. with complex work cycles,together with the manufacturers of simple tools. Component manufacturing is alsowell developed and cl osely allied to companies producing durable goods noteasily classified in any one sector (for example, non-metallic materials used inthe car industry: rubber, glass, plastics etc). In practice, mechanical engineering with its diversification and multiplerelationships with other industries is considered the mainstay of the nationalproductive system also in terms of the large workforce employed (over 2,2million according to the 198 1 census, including small workshops). Apart fromcars and other vehicles, the most highly developed industries are tools,household appliances, electronic equipment, precision instruments etc. Theindustrial machinery sector is particularly active with ex tensive overseasmarkets, and includes components for complete process cycles. The chemical industryThe chemical industry is closely linked to mining and quarrying and usesprevalently liquid (oil) and gaseous hydrocarbons (methane) from which animmense range of materials is produced (rubber, plastics, synthetic resins,synthetic fibres, fertilizers et c.), apart from traditional utilization asheating fuel, engine fuel etc.). Like the steel industry, the chemical industry has been going through a criticalperiod due to over-production and problems related to modernization of plant. One serious additional condition is the need to resort to large-scaleimportation of raw materia ls for transformation, and consequent submission tofluctuating conditions on the international market. The textile industryTextiles are the oldest Italian industry, widespread throughout the formerStates on the peninsula and frequently linked to the rural community whichprovided plentiful low cost labour. In the postwar period, this sector faced aperiod of crisis caused pr imarily by the use of old machinery and inefficientworking methods, though also by competition by foreign producers, particularlyin developing countries which were already raw material suppliers (cotton, wool,jute etc.). In actual fact, the crisis in the textile industry has deeper roots in theprogressive decay of some traditional related activities, such as silkwormbreeding and the cultivation of hemp and flax. The utilization of artificialfibres derived from cellulos e, and later of synthetics derived fromhydrocarbons, together with renewal of production plant (mainly automated) andjob reorganization, has enabled far higher levels of productivity to be reached,offset by a considerable decrease in the workforce and concentration ofcompanies. For its raw material supplies (synthetic fibres) and the utilization of thefabrics produced, the textile sector is closely allied (also by verticalmergering of companies) to the chemical and garment manufacturing industries. The latter, in particular, i s still scattered over the country, in the form ofsmall firms. The food industryDevelopment of the food industry is a direct consequence of the expansion oflarge urban centres and progressive industrialization. Strictly allied to theprimary sector (agriculture and livestock) it makes considerable usenevertheless of imports, the re sult of insufficient national agricultural andlivestock production.Ascatteringofsmallartisan-typefirmsgenerallyorientedtowards meeting local demand is now flanked by numbers of medium-sized companiesoperating at a national level, using advanced systems of processing,conservation and packaging, themselves flanking the pasta, wine and oilproducers, and other traditional companies. The food conservation industry is ina special position, connected with agriculture, livestock and fisheries. Certain sectors of the economy such as wines, bakery products and confectionery,are particularly renowned abroad. A number of big multinationals monopolizesupplies and are thus in a position to influence market conditions, while massdistribution (super markets) is interdependent with certain food manufacturers,while frozen and vacuum packed foodstuffs have helped to extend seasonalconsumption, particularly of fresh fruit, vegetables and perishables. Here is a chart showing the dramatic changes in Industry. The Geological SubstratumEven if it is not very extensive,theItalian territory is distinguished by theconsiderable variety of its substratum rocks. The Alps are largely formed fromcrystalline rocks (granites, gneisses, mica-schists, porphyries, etc.) but thereare also sedimentary rocks (limestones, dolomites and sandstones) that arewidespread in the eastern sector and the pre-Alpine belt. Sedimentary rocks arealso prevalent throughout the Apennines (limestones, dolomites, sandstones,clays, marls, etc.), including Sicily, and are found in Sardinia too, wherecrystalline and volcanic rocks predominate. There latter (formed from ancientand recent lava and tufa) also appear in Sicily and along the peninsulasTyrrhenian margin (where there is a considerable concentration of volcanicphenomena, in part still active) as well as in the Alps. Finally, the flat areas,including the great Po-Venetian Plain, are basically formed of mixed depositsthat are mainly fluvial in origin (conglomerates, grav els, sands, clays). Thegreat variety of rock types characterizing the Italian framework is mainly theresult of a complex geological past, distinguished by marked environmentalalternations now marine, now continental as well as frequent changes inclimatic conditions. Furthermore, even if present mountain forms are consideredto be rather recent, Italy does contain extremely old rock formations. Some ofthe metamorphic outcrops in the Alpine arc and in the Sardinian-Corsican andCalabrian-Peloritan massifs were formed before the Palaeozoic era, that is morethan 600 million years ago, and therefore do not contain significant traces oforganisms. During the Palaeozic era (lasting from circa 570 to 230 million yearsago) the area now occupied by Italy was largely covered by a tropical sea(called Tethys by geologists) from which must have emerged some mountain folds,as those of the Caledonian period, begun some 500 million years ago and whosetraces remain in southwestern Sardinia (Iglesiente and Sulcis). The nextmountain building period, the Hercynian, occurred during the last 100 millionyears of the Palaeozoic era and was accompanied by considerable volcanicactivity. This provoked the formation of the original nucleus of the Alpinechain together with the emergence of the Calabrian-Peloritan mountains(Aspromonte and Sila in Calabria and Peloritan in Sicily) and the Sardinian-Corsican massif. The volcanic activity of this period also affected the Alpinearc (porphyry effusions in the Adige Valley), as well as in the northernApennines (Garfagnana and Apuan Alps) and Sardinia and Corsica. Following theHercynian orogenesis, the mountains formed by it were subject to intense erosion. Thus at the end of the Palaeozoic era there emerged from the waters of theTethys (the extensive oceanic basin separating the Euro-Asiatic continentalplate from the African) the remains of the palaeo-Alpine chain, part of thenorthern section of the peninsula probably connected with the Sardinian-Corsican massif, and, further south, the other great island fold of theCalabrian-Peloritan massif. During the course of the succeeding Mesozoic era,lasting for over 160 million years, almost all the present area of Italyremained covered by a large marine basin on whose bottom (which variedconsiderably in depth) was deposited on different occasions material of varioustypes. This was to produce, following a process of compaction and orogenesis,disparate rock formations: limestones, dolomites, sandstones, marls, etc. Inparticular, in the northeastern area there formed extensive coralline reefs fromwhich the present Dolomites are derived. Towards the end ot the Mesozoic era theprogressive moving together of the African and European continental platesreduced their common marine space and caused a folding of their respectivemargins and part of the bed of the Tethys. This was to produce the Alpine andApennine chains whose curvature reflects the anticlockwise movement of thecontact line between Europe and Africa produced by the particular forces oftheir respective plates. Their collision took place some 40 million years ago(between the Eocene and Oligocene periods) in the first-half of the Cenozoic era,which is considered to have lasted from circa 65 million to 2 million years ago. Al Gore: Presidential Candidate EssayThe coastlineThe complexity of the peninsulas relief is echoed in the diversity of itscoastal profile. Along the low and sandy Adriatic shores this is generallyrectilinear, with the exceptions of the bulge of the Po delta and of the tworocky promontories of the Conero and Gargano. The Ionian and Tyrrhenian shoresare very different, their extensive sandy curves, corresponding to the edges ofthe coastal plains, alternating with high rocky coasts or steep promontorieslike those of Piombino, Argentario, Circeo, the Sorrento Peninsula, etc. Thecoasts of Sicily and Sardinia present a similar morphological picture, thelatter having frequent rias or deep inlets resulting from the sinking of longstretches of the eastern coast. Climatic ConditionsDespite its geographical position at the centre of the temperate zone, Italy hasrather variable climatic characteristics. This is due to the presence of theMediterranean, whose warm waters mitigate thermal extremes, and the Alpine arc,which forms a barrier against the cold north winds. Furthermore, Italy issubject to both wet and moderate atmospheric currents from the Atlantic Oceanand dry and cold ones from eastern Europe. The Apennine chain too, confrontingthe wet winds from the Tyrrhenian, causes considerable climatic differencesbetween the opposite sides of the peninsula. The differences in temperaturebetween the winter and summer months are more marked in the northern regionsthan in the south and along the coasts. The mean temperatures for the month ofJanuary in the Po Plain fluctuate around zero, while in the Alpine valleys thethermometer can drop to -20 and snow can remain on the ground for many weeks. In the southern regions, instead, the mean temperatures for January remainaround 10, with the exception of the inland mountainous zones. Mean summertemperatures throughout all Italy rise to 24-25 for July, only being lower inthe highest zones. Rainfall distribution also varies considerably, due to theinfluence of both mountains and prevailing winds. The highest quantities areregistered in the Alpine arc (over 3,000 mm pa in the Lepontine and Julian Alps)and on the Apennines (over 3,000 mm pa in the Apuan Alps). The plains, however,including that of the Po, receive scarce precipitation. Generally it is lessthan 800-900 mm pa but in the southern regions (Tavoliere and southern Sicily)it falls below 600 mm pa. The great internal Alpine valleys and the coastalplains of the Tyrrhenian (Maremma) and Sardinia also receive little rain. Altogether, six large climatic regions can be distinguished, mainlycharacterized by mountain influence. 1) An Alpine region, strongly influenced byaltitude, with long cold winters and short cool summers having an elevated day-time temperature range; precipitation is more intense in the summer months,especially in the pre-Alpine belt. 2) A Po region, with continental conditions,consisting of cold and often snowy winters and warm and sultry summers;precipitation is greatest in the spring and autumn months; the climate becomesmilder, however, around the pre-Alpine lakes; fog is frequent, due to thewetness of the land. 3) An Adriatic region, whose sea has lit tle influence dueto the inability of its shallow waters to trap the summer heat; consequently theclimate has a continental character, with its winters being dominated by coldnorth-east winds (bora). 4) An Apennine region, also with continental tendenciesand cold snowy winters; precipitation is more intense on the Tyrrhenian slopesan d is abundant in all seasons apart from the summer. 5) A Ligurian-Tyrrhenianregion, with a maritime climate and heavy and frequent precipitation, which isless in the summer and distributed irregularly; the winters are cool and theannual temperature range narrow. 6) A Mediterranean region, also with a limitedannual temperature range; precipitation is frequent, especially in winter, andthe summers are hot and dry. The interior and mountain zones of the islands andCalabria also have an Apennine type climate due to the altitude. Inland WatersThe characteristics of the Italian water network are closely associated withmorphological and climatic conditions. There are only a few tens of watercourseslonger than 100 km, though the Po, which is also the longest of them all (652km) has a rainwater basin almost equal to a fourth of the national territory(74,970 sq km). Other important rivers are the Adige and Piave, descending fromthe Alps and flowing from the north into the Po, and the Arno and Tiber, flowingthrough central Italy into the Tyrrhenian. The other main tributaries of the Poare the Ticino, Adda and Oglio, arising in the Alps, the Tanaro, from theApennines, and the Reno too, though it has its mouth to the south of the Podelta. The rivers running down the Tyrrhenian slopes of the peninsula areusually longe than those of the Adriatic, because of the Apennine watershedbeing further to the east. The Italian waterways are little used for transportdue to their rather limited and variable flow. In fact the Alpin e rivers have acycle conditioned by the winter snow cover, being high in the summer and low inthe winter; while the pre-Alpine and northern Apennine source rivers are mainlyrain-fed and are only full in spring and autumn. Consequently, the cycle of thePo River is the most regular and therefore best suited to navigation. The otherrivers of the peninsula and islands are heavily influenced by climaticconditions, being full in winter and empty in summer. In the latter case it isnot unusual for the bed to remain completely dry, as in the case of the typicalfiumare in Calabria and Sicily. Italy is fairly well supplied with lakes, havingseveral thousand natural and artificial basins of different sizes and origins. The largest and deepest occupy the bottom of the great pre-Alpine valleys attheir junction with the Po Plain (from Lake Orta to Lake Garda, which is thelargest of all, while Lake Como is the deepest) and they were all excavated byPleistocene glaciers. Also along the Apennine spine there are fairly frequentlarge lakes, such as Trasimeno the remains of an older lake that together withothers occupied the bottom of the internal basins of the peninsula. The numeroussmall lakes scattered inside the spent craters of Latium and Campania arevolcanic in origin. The coastal plains of the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and largeislands contain basins that are sometimes extensive and derived from lagoons. Furthermore, the Italian Alpine slopes, above 2,800 m., contain about a thousandglaciers. Some of these are of a considerable size, such as the Miage Glacier,which is some 10 km long and descends the southern slope of Mont Blanc in ValledAosta. The glaciers are especially important for their function as waterreserves, providing as they do a constant supply for the Alpine rivers. Thecentral Apennines also have a small glacier, under the northern walls of theCorno Grande (Gran Sasso). Finally, Italys water system is completed by themany underground water bearing strata of the numerous limestone karst massifs inthe pre-Alps and Apennines. These produce springs bearing a considerable volume(as that of the Peschiera in Latium or the Sele in Campania, etc.). In addition,there are those reaching to varying depths under the Po Plain and the otheralluvial plains. The Italian SeasWith its extension from southern Europe towards Africa, the Italian peninsulaalmost divides the Mediterranean in two separate basins. Leaving aside theStrait of Messina, the shortest distance between Sicily and Africa (NE Tunisia)is circa 140 km, reduced to 70 km if it is measured from the island ofPantelleria. In this part of the sea (Channel of Sicily) the depth does notexceed 500 m. Furthermore, the eastern Mediterranean section, known as the Seaof Sicily and from which emerge the Maltese Islands, the Pelagian andPantelleria, rarely exceeds a depth of 1,500 m. Considerably deeper, on theother hand, is the Ionian Sea. This extends eastwards from Sicily and Calabriaand southwards from the Salentina Peninsula, touching on the 4,000 m isobath. Equally deep is the Tyrrhenian Sea, within the triangle formed by Corsica andSardinia, Sicily and the Italian peninsula. At its centre it often exceeds adepth of 3,500 m. A narrow channel (the Canale di Corsica) separates it, to thenorth, from the Ligurian Sea. This latter exceeds a depth of 2,000 m in itswestern section corresponding to the Riviera di Ponente. The shallowest of theItalian seas is the Adriatic, which up to the level of Ancona does not exceed 80m and only at Pescara does it decend below 200 m; off the coast of Puglia,however, it exceeds a depth of 1,200 m. Finally, in the area of the Strait ofOtranto the two shores of the Adriatic draw close together and here the Italianand Albanian coasts are only 75 km apart. As for the rest of the Mediterranean,the surface temperature of the Italian seas is on average rather high. In thenorthern Tyrrhenian, the Sea of Sicily, Ionian and southern Adriatic it is circa13; in the Ligurian Sea circa 12; in the southern Tyrrhenian circa 14; but inthe northern Adriatic, because of the shallowness of the waters, it drops to 9. The quality of the water is also rather elevated, reHistory